The special issue presents 11 original papers or reviews of articles handed in by researchers from all over the world - including our other MIX-UP partners BUCT, NTU, UCD, BioPlastech and previous P4SB partners UFZ Leipzig and University of Leipzig. This publication is the first special issue on this specific topic and has already generated 129,433 views which reflects the huge interest in this field! In their editorial article, Ren Wei and Nick Wierckx provide an introduction to the problem faced in this publication: the management of the ever-growing amount of plastics waste. Current research directions increase their foci on the role of microorganisms and microbial enzymes in the degradation process of plastics under natural conditions and the potential of biodegradable polyesters for a sustainable culture of plastics use. The special issue collects various insights into the recent progress and advances regarding the innovative microbiological approaches against plastic pollution. From the perspective of MIX-UP, we want to highlight the successful international collaboration and congratulate all partners involved!